Something that in my experience drives many (identical) twins crazy is how many people assume they look alike physically so they must be just alike in other ways. Interests, hobbies, sexuality, gender, religion, whatever. Twins may look the same superficially, but underneath they are as different as any two other people. Or any non-twin siblings if you want to be pedantic about nature and nurture.
Fantasy and Science Fiction are like the Twins of Literature. Whenever someone tries to talk about genre lines or the difference between science and magic, the same old shit gets trotted out. Clarke’s Law and all that. Someone recently left a comment on this very blog saying magic is just a stand-in for science. My friend! Boy do we have a lot to talk about today. While it’s certainly true that magic can serve many of the same functions as science (or technology) in a story, the two are fundamentally different in both themselves and the uses to which they are most often put. Sure they’re both blonde, but technology like red-heads, and magic is more into undercuts.
First, not to keep pushing the lie that science is cold and emotionless, but a prime use of science (not technology!) in literature is to influence the world through knowledge of the world’s own inner workings. (Technology does not require knowledge in its use, often, but rather only in its construction.) One of the major differences is that most (but not all) magic in stories requires knowledge to use it. You have to know how the magic works, or what the secret words are. Whereas tech is like flipping the light switch. A great writer once said what makes it science fiction is that you can make the gadget and pass it to the average joe across the engineering bay and he can use it just fine, but magic requires a particular person. I can pass out a million flame-throwers to the troops, but I can’t just pass you a fireball and expect you not to get burned. That’s one aspect to look at, although these days, magitech and enchanted objects can certainly play the role of mundane technology fairly well.
Second, magic is about taking our inner workings and thought processes and imposing them on top of the universe’s own rule. From this angle, what makes magic distinct from technology is that a magic conflict is about the inner struggle and the themes of the narrative and how they can be used to shape the world. Certainly tech can play this role, twin to how magic can be made to act like tech. But it’s much less common out in the real world of literature.
There are two kinds of magic system: One is the explicit explanation of how the magic works according to the word of god(the author), and the other is a system that the characters inside the world, with their incomplete knowledge impose on top of the word of god system. So this group uses gestures to cast spells, and this group reads a spellbook, but they are both manifestations of the same basic energy.
So magic is the power to impose our will on the world whereas science/technology is powerful through its understanding of the uncaring laws of the universe.
Then, of course, are the differences in terms of how authors use them in the narrative. Magic has a closer connection, in my opinion, to the theme aspect of literature. It can itself be a realization of the theme of a story. Love conquers all as in Lily Potter protecting her infant son from the dark lord at the cost of her life. Passion reflected in the powers of the fire mage. Elemental magic gives a great example. Look at the various associations popular between elementalists’ characters and the element they wield. Cold and impersonal ice mages, loving and hippy-ish earth mages. This analogical connection is much more difficult to achieve with technology.
There’s a lot of debate these days about “scientific” magic versus numinous magic, and whether or not magic must have rules or a system. But even systematically designed magic is not the same as technology, though it can be made to play similar roles, such as solving a plot puzzle. But think: The tricks to magic puzzles are thematic or linguistic. The Witch-king of Angmar is said to be undefeatable by any man. The trick to his invulnerability is the ambiguity of the words of the prophecy. One could argue that a woman is not a man, and therefore not restricted by the prophecy. We have no idea how the “magic” behind the protection works on a theoretical basis. Does it somehow check for Y-chromosomes? But that’s not the point. The thematic significance of the semantic ambiguity is more important. In science fiction, it’s the underlying workings that matter. Even if we don’t explain warp drive, there’s no theme or ambiguity involved. It gets you there in such and such time and that’s it. Or, in an STL universe, lightspeed is the limit and there’s no trick to get around it.
You can’t use science or technology the same way as Tolkien did with that prophecy nearly as easily. Imagine magic is hammer, and science is a sword. Sure I can put a nail in with the sword, but it’s a bitch and a half compared to just using a hammer. Just because I can put in that nail with that sword, it doesn’t mean that sword is really a hammer. Just because I can have magic that appears to follow a few discoverable and consistent rules to achieve varying but predictable effects doesn’t mean it’s the same thing as real-world science. Maybe the moon always turns Allen into a werewolf on the 1st of the month, but I’ll be codgled if you can do the same thing with science.
Whether magic or science or both are most suited to your story or the other way around depends on your goals for that individual story. Do you need magic or fantasy elements to really drive home your theme? Do you need technology to get to the alien colony three stars down? Magic can evaporate all the water in a six mile radius without frying every living thing around. Science sure as hell can’t. Not even far-future science that we can conceive of currently. They can both dry a cup, although we’re wondering why you’re wasting your cosmic talents when you could just use a damn paper towel.
Science can dress up as magic and fool your third-grade substitute teacher, and science can dress up as magic and fool the local yokels in 13th century Germany. But even if you put a wedding dress on a horse, it’s still a horse, and throwing hard science trappings onto a magic system doesn’t change it’s nature.